Category Archives: Education and Safety

Course Descriptions and Prerequisites

Basic CCR 40 Meter Class

This class is designed for the new CCR diver and is done over a period of 7 days.

Prerequisites

  1. Must be qualified in IANTD EANx Diver or equivalent.
  2. Must be qualified in IANTD Deep Diver or RCCR Deep Diver or equivalent.
  3. Proof of a minimum of 50 logged dives.

Class Content and Equipment

  1. Classroom academics
  2. Build class
  3. Confined water
  4. Minimum 7 open water dives
  5. Maximum 15 minutes decompression
  6. SMB and reel

Skills included but not limited to:

  1. Open circuit bail out drills
  2. Hypoxia, hyperoxia, hypercapnia and “boom” drills.
  3. Valve shut offs.
  4. Remove and replace rebreather under water (ditch and don).
  5. No mask swim.
  6. Remove and replace bailout bottles while swimming.
  7. Switch bailout bottle with buddy.
  8. Open circuit bailout to the surface.
  9. Open circuit bailout to the surface with a decompression obligation.

This list is by no means all inclusive and is intended to give the student a feel for what is done in a typical class. I do not teach to a minimum standard so expect to do more than the minimum number of dives and minutes required. I tailor classes around the students needs and abilities so he or she will reap the maximum benefit. When we finish I want you to be both comfortable and confident on your new rebreather.

Crossover Class From One CCR to Another

Prerequisites & Dive Requirements

a. To qualify from one Closed Circuit Rebreather to another Closed Circuit Rebreather, a diver must:
I. Have 12 CCR dives of which one (1) must have been within 45 days of the program on the new CCR
II. Must complete a minimum of 200 minutes training in a combination of Confined Water and Open Water environments with at least two (2) Open Water dives.

i. If the Diver is already certified as Recreational Rebreather Diver and Adv. EANx Diver (OC) or a Recreational Rebreather Mixed Gas Diver, the program must include:
a. A minimum of 400 minutes training in a combination of Confined Water and Open Water environments.
b. A minimum of 4 Open Water dives of in-water training time using the specific Rebreather on which they are being trained.
III. Two dives must be deeper than 50 fsw (15 msw)
IV. Two dives must be deeper than 132 fsw (40 msw)
► NOTE: Decompression bottle must also be carried on the deep dives.

Trimix Classes – CCR and Open Circuit

Normoxic Trimix – CCR and Open Circuit

Provides training and certification for those wishing to safely execute dives to depths up to 60 meters (200 feet) OR with Normoxic Plus to 70 meters (233 feet)

Prerequisites

Open Circuit

  1. IANTD Advanced EANx Diver or higher or equivalent.
  2. Must provide proof of a minimum of 100 logged dives, of which at least 30 were deeper than 90 fsw (27 msw).

Rebreather

  1. IANTD Advanced EANx CCR or IANTD Advanced EANx SCR diver or equivalent.
  2. Must provide proof of a minimum of 100 logged dives of which at least 25 rebreather dives and 50 hours on the unit with at least 50% of them logged on the same CCR to be used in the course. At least 30 dives were deeper than 90 fsw (27 msw).

Class Content and Equipment

  1. Classroom academics.
  2. Confined water
  3. Minimum 7 dives for CCR and 4 dives for Open Circuit.
  4. Minimum 300 minutes in water time for Open circuit and 360 for CCR.
  5. Maximum 2 deco bottles for Open Circuit. 2 bailout bottles required for CCR
  6. 1 lift bag, 1 SMB and 2 reels. No Spools!

Skills and Topics included but not limited to:

  1. Open circuit bail out drills – CCR
  2. Hypoxia, hyperoxia, hypercapnia and “boom” drills – CCR.
  3. Valve shut offs – OC and CCR.
  4. Remove and replace rebreather or doubles under water (ditch and don).
  5. No mask swim.
  6. Remove and replace bailout or deco bottles while swimming – OC and CCR.
  7. Switch bottle with buddy.
  8. Depth appropriate bottle and or gas switches.
  9. 2 gas Open circuit bailout to the surface from maximum depth with a full decompression obligation – CCR.
  10. Lift bag deployment from depth – CCR and OC.
  11. Survival strategies – semi closed – use of alternate gas sources – open loop – CCR.
  12. Survival strategies – OC and CCR
  13. Gas planning – OC and CCR
  14. Full decompression obligation ascents without benefit of upline or lift bag. (one is available if you need it but the idea is to not use it).
  15. Decompression theory.
  16. Gradient factor selection and theory.
  17. PO2 selection.

Once again, this list is by no means all inclusive and is intended to give the student a feel for what is done in a typical class. I do not teach to a minimum standard so expect to do more than the minimum number of dives and or minutes required. I tailor classes around the students needs and abilities so he or she will reap the maximum benefit. When we finish I want you to be both comfortable and confident in the water.

 

Hypoxic 100 Meter Trimix – CCR and Open Circuit

Prerequisites

Open Circuit:

  1. Must provide proof of a minimum of 200 logged dives
  2. At least 25 dives to depths between 140 fsw (42 msw) and 200 fsw (60 msw).

Rebreather:

  1. Must provide proof of a minimum of 200 logged dives
  2. At least 100 hours on the rebreather to be used.
  3. At least 25 dives to depths between 132 fsw (40 msw) and 200 fsw (60 msw).
  4. NOTE: If already certified as Rebreather Normoxic Trimix Diver on another recognized unit by IANTD, 25 rebreather dives and 50 hours must be on the unit specific for the class.

Class Content and Equipment

  1. Classroom academics.
  2. Confined water
  3. Minimum 7 dives for CCR and 4 dives for Open Circuit.
  4. Minimum 300 minutes in water time for Open circuit and 360 for CCR.
  5. 2 deco gasses for Open Circuit. 2 bailout gasses for CCR
  6. 1 lift bag, 1 SMB and 2 reels. No Spools!

Skills and Topics included but not limited to:

The 100 meter class covers many of the same things as the 60 meter class but in greater depth and intensity.

  1. Open circuit bail out drills – CCR
  2. Hypoxia, hyperoxia, hypercapnia and “boom” drills – CCR.
  3. Valve shut offs – OC and CCR.
  4. Remove and replace rebreather or doubles under water (ditch and don).
  5. No mask swim.
  6. Remove and replace bailout or deco bottles while swimming – OC and CCR.
  7. Switch bottle with buddy.
  8. Depth appropriate bottle and or gas switches.
  9. 2 gas Open circuit bailout to the surface from maximum depth with a full decompression obligation – CCR.
  10. Lift bag deployment from depth – CCR and OC.
  11. Survival strategies – semi closed – use of alternate gas sources – open loop – CCR.
  12. Survival strategies – OC and CCR
  13. Gas planning – OC and CCR
  14. Full decompression obligation ascents without benefit of upline or lift bag (one is available if you need it but the idea is to not use it).
  15. Decompression theory.
  16. Gradient factor selection and theory.
  17. PO2 selection.

Once again, this list is by no means all inclusive and is intended to give the student a feel for what is done in a typical class. I do not teach to a minimum standard so expect to do more than the minimum number of dives and or minutes required. I tailor classes around the students needs and abilities so he or she will reap the maximum benefit. When we finish I want you to be both comfortable and confident in the water.

 

Cave

Cave diving is a very serious but very rewarding endeavor. I do not subscribe to the modular approach for training. You are either a Cave Diver or you are not and I do not believe in giving someone access to an environment they are not fully trained for. That said, I expect my students to demonstrate not only the skills but the attitude necessary to be a successful and safe Full Cave Diver. To accomplish this you must have a commitment to constantly work on perfecting your skills and maintaining them. Cave diving is an attitude, a passion and a mindset.

Prerequisites

Open Circuit:

  1. Must have proof of 100 dives or sufficient experience doing technical dives to satisfy the instructor that the student has the ability and knowledge to continue into this level of training.

Rebreather:

  1. Must have proof of 100 rebreather dives.
  2. OC Cave Diver to Rebreather Cave Diver Crossover: Must be qualified as Rebreather Diver on the unit to be used and have 25 rebreather dives with 50 hours of dive time on the Rebreather.

Crossover From Open Circuit Cave to CCR Cave:

1. A minimum of 200 minutes of cave bottom time;
2. Two (2) rebreather cave dives.
► NOTE: This Program must include a confined water session.
► NOTE: All CCR cave specific skills must be completed.
3. (RB) Each team must carry stages or adequate bailout gas or bailout rebreathers to get a minimum of 1½ divers to the surface.
4. (RB) Bailout cylinder PO2 may not exceed 1.6 at the MOD and may not have an END greater than
120 fsw (36 msw)

Class Content and Equipment

  1. Classroom academics.
  2. Land line drills
  3. Minimum 10 dives for CCR and 12 dives for Open Circuit.
  4. Minimum 500 minutes in water time for Open circuit and 600 for CCR.
  5. 1 staged deco bottle for Open Circuit. 1 bailout bottle required for CCR plus appropriate staged decompression gas.
  6. Minimum of 3 Reels. A 400 foot primary, a 140 foot Safety and a 50 foot jump reel. Spools are acceptable.
  7. Line Arrows and Cookies or other non directional marker.

Skills and Topics included but not limited to:

  1. Proper use of reels.
  2. Interpreting line markers.
  3. Running a primary reel.
  4. Use of jump and gap reels.
  5. Navigation. Safe execution of circuits and traverses.
  6. Lost line drill.
  7. Lights out or blackout drills.
  8. Lost diver procedures.
  9. Broken line.
  10. “Reading” the cave for both navigation and safety.
  11. Signaling – light and hand.
  12. Gas management.
  13. Bailout exit for CCR
  14. Semi Closed drills and exit for CCR
  15. Dive planning.
  16. Cave conservation.

 

Loop Leaks and Water Intrusion

Leaks are bad, no matter if they are in Congress or in your rebreather loop.  They are annoying and dangerous.
Prior to diving we should all use a check list and do our pre-dive checks, two of which are the “positive and negative” tests.  Their purpose is to detect system leaks  before entering the water.  We pressurize the loop for a positive test and draw a vacuum for a negative test.  We then look for changes in counter lung volume and or listen for hissing sounds.  If they deflate, inflate or hiss we suspect a leak.  If they hold pressure and are silent we say they passed and are safe to dive.
But, are they?  It is quite possible you have a leak that eludes this process.
The Mouthpiece
Probably the most common leak is from a split or torn mouthpiece.  It can also be quite difficult to find.  A tiny tear or hole in a mouthpiece can present quite the mystery.  The loop will pass positive and negative testing and seem fine. Then, during the dive you hear that ever so annoying “gurgling” sound.  You listen for bubbles and hear none.  You signal your buddy to check above you looking for leaks and he tells you there are none.  But you keep draining the water from your loop so it has to be coming from somewhere.  To further complicate things, the loop might only take in water on inhalation or when you tilt your head in a certain position.  You may look for the leak on every exposed part of your rig and not find it. 
So what Do You Do?
If you are getting water in your loop and cannot find the source, even after checking all of the prime suspects, change the mouthpiece, even if it looks good.  This will often solve the problem or at the very least eliminate the mouthpiece as its’ cause.  Sometimes the leak is so minuscule that only an exaggerated stretch, bend or twist will reveal the tear or pinhole.   
Sometimes the cause of the leak is not a tear or a pin hole.  Believe it or not, if your DSV or BOV is angled incorrectly it will cause the side of your mouth to twist open when you move in certain positions and allow water in.  This could potentially cascade into a very unpleasant event if it causes the loop to pop out of your mouth.  If you are fighting your loop to keep it in your mouth straight it needs to be adjusted to fit you properly.  Loosen the hose clamps and move it so it sits at the same angle as your mouth and does not pull up, down or sideways.  Of course be sure to retighten the hose clamps properly.
Loop Hoses
A small split in the crevices of a loop hose can be very difficult to find.  It may only leak when the hose is stretched or turned in a specific way.  All other times it may be fine.  Because of this it is important to perform a visual inspection of your hoses as part of your pre-dive ritual.  Do this when you check your mushroom or flapper valves by stretching the hose.  Look for cracks or splits in the crevices between the ridges and where they are clamped to anything (DSV, TEE Pieces etc.).    Anything suspect should be visually inspected and tested with a soapy water bubble test or by submersion.  Remember, this type of leak can easily pass your standard positive and negative testing, so while I am not suggesting it is something to be paranoid about, it is not something to ignore.  This is why I do not like hose covers.  They may look cool but can conceal dangerous leaks.  High quality loop hoses are quite robust and do not need covers.
Be wary of rubber sleeves covering loop hose clamps.  They make the loop look pretty but they can conceal a large tear.  In the image below the loop hose was torn by the clamp but it passed a positive and negative test because the clamp was covered with a rubber sleeve which in effect, sealed the leak.
Should you find yourself in the water with this type of leak, the safest solution is to bail out.  If that is not practical or possible, an alternate solution is to grasp the hose with both hands and hold it in a position where it doesn’t leak, IE, press the offending crevice together to stop the leak while you abort the dive.  Obviously, this is only practical in a limited number of circumstances where the split is small and in which staying on the loop is a better choice than bailing out.  Remember, a flooded loop can lead to a caustic cocktail and cascade into a series of very unpleasant, potentially fatal events so if you make this choice, do so judiciously.
ORINGS
The next source of leaks and water intrusion are orings.  They should be inspected every time you build your unit.  Change any orings that have flat spots, nicks or cracks.  Lubricate any orings that require it but don’t over do it.  Remember that lube is also a dirt magnet so use care to not pick up any grit while the orings are exposed to the environment.  Also visually inspect oring grooves and clean any accumulated dirt or excess grease.  If necessary, remove the oring and clean the groove.  Use a plastic pick or something similar for removal to help prevent accidental damage.
DEWATERING
Every rebreather diver should be proficient at removing water from the loop.  He should also be cognizant of how water will collect in his particular rebreather so he does not do anything to worsen his situation.  For example, if you suspect water is in the unit and proximate to the scrubber you need to understand the unit well enough to avoid positions that will facilitate  water reaching the sorb.  I will not go into specifics here because every unit is different.  What works well on one unit might be bad on another.  If you do not understand this process well or if you understand it but are not good at it you should remedy this deficiency as soon as possible.  Practice the procedure often so it becomes second nature.  If you do not understand the path necessary to facilitate water removal, call your instructor and ask him to clarify it for you.  Once you thoroughly understand the flow of the unit, dewatering becomes very simple.  If your rebreather does not permit removing water from its breathing loop you need to account for that in your dive planning and factor in extra conservatism to account for it.  Avoid dives or situations where the probability of water ingress into the loop is higher than usual and access to the surface is limited.  You don’t want a flood 5000 feet back in a cave with no well rehearsed plan of escape.  Remember that a flooded unit becomes extremely negative, making swimming on open circuit bailout more difficult.  Even if you can no longer stay on the loop, the ability to remove water from it is important.
The Best Leak Test
 So, what is the best leak test?  At the beginning of every dive buddies should hover above one and other and look for bubbles.  The predive positive and negative tests will find any larger leaks but nothing surpasses an in water bubble check at depth to find any smaller leaks.  This can be accomplished at 20 feet in conjunction with a cell linearity check.  If this is not practical do it at depth before you begin the actual dive.  In any event, this should always be done.  Other indications of a leak include gurgling sounds in the loop, hissing noises behind your head, an unexpected change in buoyancy or an increase in the work of breathing.  The silence afforded us by diving a rebreather permits hearing the smallest of leaks so be acutely aware of any unusual sounds.  Do not ignore them.
I hope some of you, especially newer rebreather divers, find this information useful.
Until the next time, thank you for reading.
Joe
 
 

 

The Ring of Death

Over the years I have come to realize that in this sport we all love so much every diver is responsible for their own safety and well being.  The notion that anyone else will care about or protect you as well as you will do for yourself is flawed.  It won’t happen, which of course begs the question; how does one effectively ensure safety?

You Don’t Need A Crystal Ball

You need a little common sense which unfortunately, is often times not so common.  Most events having negative outcomes are usually highly predictable.  They have signs that are like billboards once we learn to recognize them.

Beware Of

Advanced tech dive trips or projects that are in search of participants.  They are always suspect.  If it is such a good trip or project why isn’t it filled?  The good ones fill up as fast as they are announced.  If the only requirement to get on an advanced Tech trip or participate in an advanced project is a certification card you should be wary.

Right about now you might be asking yourself, “Why is this so?”

Well, the answer is simple.  Tech trips and projects require larger numbers of qualified divers to make them viable.  By industry standards the only requirement is that participants hold the appropriate certifications which of course say nothing about experience levels.  It is only the level of human decency the organizers may or may not have that dictate how well they vet participating divers.  A well organized, safely run trip or project will always incorporate some sort of vetting process before divers who are unknown entities are allowed to participate.  Be happy when an organizer asks for a reference to vouch for you.  It means someone cares about the project or trip, you and your family.  They don’t want to make the phone call that all team leaders dread.

If you have no one to vouch for your abilities and experience level, DON’T LIE!  There are not that many participants at this level of diving.  Everyone knows everyone else and a good team leader will be able to vet you by who trained you and who you dive with.   You will fare much better by telling the truth and saying that you’d like to participate and would be happy to go on a benign “shakeout dive” to demonstrate your abilities.

It Works Both Ways

Just as trip and project organizers should vet you, it is in your best interests to vet them.  While anyone can have an accident or a bad day, if you pay attention you will find that whenever there is a negative event it is often the same people, places and operations that keep popping up.  Learn to recognize them and judiciously avoid the “Ring of Death”.   Don’t be afraid to question procedures and protocols.  Review their track record.  Is there a history of avoidable accidents?  Is there a history of incidents occurring because participants are diving past their experience levels?  If so, walk away.  If they don’t seem safe they probably aren’t.  The Wreck, Cave or whatever will be there for a long time.  There is nothing worth losing your life or your health to see there.

If It Sounds Stupid, It Probably Is

Learn to listen to that inner voice we all have and don’t be intimidated by someone who is vastly more experienced than you if the proposition sounds stupid.  You are probably right so don’t be afraid to ask questions and walk away if you don’t get satisfactory answers.  Often times there is a desperation to fill a boat or run a project dive and when the organizers can’t attract their “preferred” participants they open things up to anyone with a certification and dollars.  You might be tempted to think “Well I know I am experienced enough to do these dives so it’s not a problem for me”.  Well, it is unless you have no heart or soul.  I would like to believe that all of us would render assistance to a fellow diver in trouble even if we otherwise don’t know or even dislike the person.  By default this puts you in harms way.  The possibility of a panicked diver taking others to the hospital or grave is very real.  It is in your best interests to recognize that fact.  You don’t want to be surrounded by well meaning people who are diving beyond their experience levels.  If they have a problem you are most likely going to render aid and be in jeopardy.  The best option is to not be there.  Twice in my life I “dodged the bullet” this way.  Both times I was scheduled to go on a trip and when I heard who was going and what they were doing I suddenly had a scheduling conflict.  Both times there were fatalities.  My ego likes to believe had I been there those accidents would not have occurred; that I would have seen them coming and prevented them.   The realist in me knows that is not so.  You can’t save the world.

So, the next time you want to dive on a Tech trip or project, or do advanced dives with a group unknown to you, it is in your best interests to vet them first.  If all you need is a certification or the necessary dollars, run away.  If no one asks for your diving resume, run away.  If the operation or group has a dismal safety record, run away.  If you keep these “rules” in mind you will increase the odds of not being in or near the “Ring of Death” and enjoy many years of safe diving.

 

Instruction

I take instruction very seriously. Whatever knowledge I impart to a student will stay with him or her for a very long time so it is important that courses are of the highest quality. My motivation is that diving is my passion and I want to share what I have learned over the years with others.

My rebreathers of choice are the Megalodon and SF2 CCRs.  I teach and recommend both depending on your needs.  Both are simple designs and less prone to problems.  Both can be de-watered easily and have an ADV (Automatic Diluent Valve) that can be shut off.  Both have an OPV (Over Pressure Valves) well suited to their task neither requiring extreme tactics to control loop volume when bailing out.  If you want to learn to dive a Megalodon  or an SF2  from someone with real world experience give me a call.

I also teach open and closed circuit Trimix, Cave, DPV Cave and Technical Wreck. My courses are comprehensive and challenging. You will get what is in the book and a lot that is not. My goal is to give the student the tools necessary to evolve into a world class diver and one day be able to participate in dives at any level anywhere.  Of course these tools will serve them well no matter what their aspirations might be.

If you want to take a course  contact me at Joe Citelli

COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

Basic CCR 40 Meter Class

This class is designed for the new CCR diver and is done over a period of 7 days.

Prerequisites

  1.  Must be qualified in IANTD EANx Diver or equivalent.
  2.  Must be qualified in IANTD Deep Diver or RCCR Deep Diver or equivalent.
  3. Proof of a minimum of 50 logged dives.

Class Content and Equipment

  1. Classroom academics
  2. Build class
  3. Confined water
  4. Minimum 7 open water dives
  5. Maximum 15 minutes decompression
  6. SMB and reel

Skills included but not limited to:

  1. Open circuit bail out drills
  2. Hypoxia, hyperoxia, hypercapnia and “boom” drills.
  3. Valve shut offs.
  4. Remove and replace rebreather under water (ditch and don).
  5. No mask swim.
  6. Remove and replace bailout bottles while swimming.
  7. Switch bailout bottle with buddy.
  8. Open circuit bailout to the surface.
  9. Open circuit bailout to the surface with a decompression obligation.

This list is by no means all inclusive and is intended to give the student a feel for what is done in a typical class.  I do not teach to a minimum standard so expect to do more than the minimum number of dives and minutes required.  I tailor classes around the students needs and abilities so he or she will reap the maximum benefit.   When we finish I want you to be both comfortable and confident on your new rebreather.

Crossover Class From CCR to Another

Prerequisites & Dive Requirements

a. To qualify from one Closed Circuit Rebreather to another Closed Circuit Rebreather, a diver must:
I. Have 12 CCR dives of which one (1) must have been within 45 days of the program on the new CCR
II. Must complete a minimum of 200 minutes training in a combination of Confined Water and Open Water environments with at least two (2) Open Water dives.

i. If the Diver is already certified as Recreational Rebreather Diver and Adv. EANx Diver (OC) or a Recreational Rebreather Mixed Gas Diver, the program must include:
a. A minimum of 400 minutes training in a combination of Confined Water and Open Water environments.
b. A minimum of 4 Open Water dives of in-water training time using the specific Rebreather on which they are being trained.
III. Two dives must be deeper than 50 fsw (15 msw)
IV. Two dives must be deeper than 132 fsw (40 msw)
► NOTE: Decompression bottle must also be carried on the deep dives.

Trimix Classes – CCR and Open Circuit

Normoxic Trimix – CCR and Open Circuit

Provides training and certification for those wishing to safely execute dives to depths up to 60 meters (200 feet) OR with Normoxic Plus to 70 meters (233 feet)

Prerequisites

Open Circuit

  1. IANTD Advanced EANx Diver or higher or equivalent.
  2. Must provide proof of a minimum of 100 logged dives, of which at least 30 were deeper than 90 fsw (27 msw).

Rebreather

  1. IANTD Advanced EANx CCR or IANTD Advanced EANx SCR diver or equivalent.
  2. Must provide proof of a minimum of 100 logged dives of which at least 25 rebreather dives and 50 hours on the unit with at least 50% of them logged on the same CCR to be used in the course.  At least 30 dives were deeper than 90 fsw (27 msw).

Class Content and Equipment

  1. Classroom academics.
  2. Confined water
  3. Minimum 7 dives for CCR and 4 dives for Open Circuit.
  4. Minimum 300 minutes in water time for Open circuit and 360 for CCR.
  5. Maximum 2 deco bottles for Open Circuit.  2 bailout bottles required for CCR
  6. 1 lift bag, 1 SMB and 2 reels. No Spools!

Skills and Topics included but not limited to:

  1. Open circuit bail out drills – CCR
  2. Hypoxia, hyperoxia, hypercapnia and “boom” drills – CCR.
  3. Valve shut offs – OC and CCR.
  4. Remove and replace rebreather or doubles under water (ditch and don).
  5. No mask swim.
  6. Remove and replace bailout or deco bottles while swimming – OC and CCR.
  7. Switch bottle with buddy.
  8. Depth appropriate bottle and or gas switches.
  9. 2 gas Open circuit bailout to the surface from maximum depth with a full decompression obligation – CCR.
  10. Lift bag deployment from depth – CCR and OC.
  11. Survival strategies – semi closed – use of alternate gas sources – open loop – CCR.
  12. Survival strategies – OC and CCR
  13. Gas planning – OC and CCR
  14. Full decompression obligation ascents without benefit of upline or lift bag. (one is available if you need it but the idea is to not use it).
  15. Decompression theory.
  16. Gradient factor selection and theory.
  17. PO2 selection.

Once again, this list is by no means all inclusive and is intended to give the student a feel for what is done in a typical class.  I do not teach to a minimum standard so expect to do more than the minimum number of dives and or minutes required.  I tailor classes around the students needs and abilities so he or she will reap the maximum benefit.   When we finish I want you to be both comfortable and confident in the water.

 

Hypoxic 100 Meter Trimix – CCR and Open Circuit

Prerequisites

Open Circuit:

  1. Must provide proof of a minimum of 200 logged dives
  2. At least 25 dives to depths between 140 fsw (42 msw) and 200 fsw (60 msw).

Rebreather:

  1. Must provide proof of a minimum of 200 logged dives
  2. At least 100 hours on the rebreather to be used.
  3. At least 25 dives to depths between 132 fsw (40 msw) and 200 fsw (60 msw).
  4. NOTE: If already certified as Rebreather Normoxic Trimix Diver on another recognized unit by IANTD, 25 rebreather dives and 50 hours must be on the unit specific for the class.

Class Content and Equipment

  1. Classroom academics.
  2. Confined water
  3. Minimum 7 dives for CCR and 4 dives for Open Circuit.
  4. Minimum 300 minutes in water time for Open circuit and 360 for CCR.
  5. 2 deco gasses for Open Circuit.  2 bailout gasses for CCR
  6. 1 lift bag, 1 SMB and 2 reels. No Spools!

Skills and Topics included but not limited to:

The 100 meter class covers many of the same things as the 60 meter class but in greater depth and intensity.

  1. Open circuit bail out drills – CCR
  2. Hypoxia, hyperoxia, hypercapnia and “boom” drills – CCR.
  3. Valve shut offs – OC and CCR.
  4. Remove and replace rebreather or doubles under water (ditch and don).
  5. No mask swim.
  6. Remove and replace bailout or deco bottles while swimming – OC and CCR.
  7. Switch bottle with buddy.
  8. Depth appropriate bottle and or gas switches.
  9. 2 gas Open circuit bailout to the surface from maximum depth with a full decompression obligation – CCR.
  10. Lift bag deployment from depth – CCR and OC.
  11. Survival strategies – semi closed – use of alternate gas sources – open loop – CCR.
  12. Survival strategies – OC and CCR
  13. Gas planning – OC and CCR
  14. Full decompression obligation ascents without benefit of upline or lift bag (one is available if you need it but the idea is to not use it).
  15. Decompression theory.
  16. Gradient factor selection and theory.
  17. PO2 selection.

Once again, this list is by no means all inclusive and is intended to give the student a feel for what is done in a typical class.  I do not teach to a minimum standard so expect to do more than the minimum number of dives and or minutes required.  I tailor classes around the students needs and abilities so he or she will reap the maximum benefit.   When we finish I want you to be both comfortable and confident in the water.

 

Cave

Cave diving is a very serious but very rewarding endeavor.  I do not subscribe to the modular approach for training.  You are either a Cave Diver or you are not and I do not believe in giving someone access to an environment they are not fully trained for.  That said, I expect my students to demonstrate not only the skills but the attitude necessary to be a successful and safe Full Cave Diver.  To accomplish this you must have a commitment to constantly work on perfecting your skills and maintaining them.  Cave diving is an attitude, a passion and a mindset.

Prerequisites

Open Circuit:

  1. Must have proof of 100 dives or sufficient experience doing technical dives to satisfy the instructor that the student has the ability and knowledge to continue into this level of training.

Rebreather:

  1. Must have proof of 100 rebreather dives.
  2. OC Cave Diver to Rebreather Cave Diver Crossover:                    Must be qualified as Rebreather Diver on the unit to be used and have 25 rebreather dives with 50 hours of dive time on the Rebreather.

Class Content and Equipment

  1. Classroom academics.
  2. Land line drills
  3. Minimum 10 dives for CCR and 12 dives for Open Circuit.
  4. Minimum 500 minutes in water time for Open circuit and 600 for CCR.
  5. 1 staged deco bottle for Open Circuit.  1 bailout bottle required for CCR plus appropriate staged decompression gas.
  6. Minimum of 3 Reels.  A 400 foot primary, a 140 foot Safety and a 50 foot jump reel.  Spools are acceptable.
  7. Line Arrows and Cookies or other non directional marker.

Skills and Topics included but not limited to:

  1. Proper use of reels.
  2. Interpreting line markers.
  3. Running a primary reel.
  4. Use of jump and gap reels.
  5. Navigation.  Safe execution of circuits and traverses.
  6. Lost line drill.
  7. Lights out or blackout drills.
  8. Lost diver procedures.
  9. Broken line.
  10. “Reading” the cave for both navigation and safety.
  11. Signaling – light and hand.
  12. Gas management.
  13. Bailout exit for CCR
  14. Semi Closed drills and exit for CCR
  15. Dive planning.
  16. Cave conservation.